About Y.Altynsarin

f 1Ibrai Altynsarin went down in the history of Kazakhstan as an outstanding educator, teacher, poet, public figure.
Ibrai Altynsarin was born on October 20, 1841 in the Arkaragay volost (now Zatobolsk district) of the Kostanay region in a well-to-do family. Having lost his father early, he was brought up by his grandfather, Biy Balgozha Dzhan-burchin, who served in the Orenburg border commission and enjoyed great influence among the ruling elite, and especially among the Kazakhs of the Orenburg steppes. At the same time, Balgozha was a connoisseur of Kazakh oral literary creativity, sometimes he himself composed poetry, was an eloquent orator.
In 1850, when one of the first schools for Kazakh children was opened in Orenburg, the administrative center of the Turgai region, the purpose of which was to prepare literate people for the tsarist administration, my grandfather identified Ibrai as a student. About the period of his studies at school, one of the archival documents has been preserved, which says that he was distinguished by perseverance and independence.
In 1857, Ibrai Altynsarin successfully graduated from school and was left at the Orenburg border commission, where he worked as a clerk for about three years. Here he continued to improve the level of his knowledge, carefully read and studied his native history, literature, scientific works and works of art of Eastern, Russian and Western European culture.

I. Altynsarin, seized with a high desire to bring as much benefit to his native people, dreamed of doing pedagogical work, in which he saw his calling. After long troubles and difficulties, he managed to leave Orenburg in 1860 and transfer to the city of Turgai, but even here the local tsarist authorities for a long time did not give Ibrai Altynsarin the opportunity to devote himself to his beloved teaching profession, defining him as an assistant judge, then as a judge, assistant chief, and ... about. head of the county. Only in 1865 was it finally possible to switch to pedagogical work. Later, for almost 20 years, he held leading positions in the system of public education.
As an inspector for public education in the Turgai district, he proved himself to be an outstanding organizer, a talented teacher, a well-known writer-educator and a prominent public figure. "Schools are the main springs of the education of the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs," wrote Ibrai Altynsarin, "... on them, and especially on them, hope, in them is the future of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) people." A champion of enlightenment, I. Altynsarin considered it the sacred duty of an educated person to bring knowledge to children.
His desire to teach Kazakh children in such a way that they could be useful to their people and join the achievements of agriculture, industry met with resistance from two sides. The tsarist administration was interested in training the lower echelon of officials from the local population, capable of conducting office work in Russian, being clerks, translators, brought up in the spirit of adaptation to the colonial policy of tsarism. Therefore, she outwardly did not oppose Altynsarin's initiative to teach Kazakh children the Russian language, but did not provide any support to the idea of a broad education. On the other hand, the local clergy opposed Ibrai's innovations, trying to instill that he allegedly wanted to "baptize" Kazakh children and prepare them for "soldier's service" in the Russian army. Altynsarin really opposed ignorance, superstition, confinement within the framework of an outdated nomadic life and those clergymen who used Islam for selfish purposes and even in the interests of the imperial ideology, according to which, "following Mohammed, be servants of the white king."
Having started his educational and pedagogical activity, I. Altynsarin often travels to villages, explains to the local population the meaning and goals, benefits of secular education, organizes fundraising for the construction of schools. Under him, Russian-Kazakh schools were opened in Turgai, Iletskaya protection, Irgiz, Aktyubinsk. He is seeking the opening of the first girls' school.
“It is our lot,” he wrote, “now the most difficult, responsible time has fallen, when everything still needs to be created, introduced these innovations into a dark environment and illuminated everything as far as we have strength and skill ... So I am dragging along the steppes begging for money from societies and various public county and regional volosts. " On his initiative, 7 primary schools were opened, 4 two-grade schools for Kazakh children, including the first schools for Kazakh women with teaching subjects in their native and Russian languages. In 1883, a Kazakh teacher's seminary was opened in Orsk.
S. Altynsarin not only created secular public schools, but also scientifically developed for them didactic principles of teaching and upbringing of children, wrote teaching and methodological aids.
Altynsarin devoted his whole life to enlightening his native people. “The Kazakh people in themselves represent a fertile ground for education,” he wrote.
f 2Altynsarin was a staunch supporter of the commonwealth of the Russian and Kazakh peoples. He promoted democratic Russian literature, used the experience of the Russian pedagogical writers K. As an enlightener, Altynsarin is characterized by the cult of knowledge and belief in the all-saving knowledge for the development of society and each human individuality. Contemporaries who followed the literary activities of Ibray Altynsarin, already during his lifetime, were able to assess how much it meets the needs of the people. Among the merits, in addition to his own literary creativity - the compilation of a reader in the native language, which were called "An initial guide to teaching the Russian language to the Kirghiz" and "Kyrgyz Reader" (1879).
These books used the new Kazakh alphabet, created on the basis of Russian graphics. In the introductory article to the "Kyrgyz Reader" Altynsarin wrote: "... There are almost no books of general educational content in any of the Asian languages, we are forced to look for similar manuals in the nearest Russian language. As a result, we considered it more convenient to print this anthology in Russian letters, so that it directly corresponds to its purpose, that is, it serves as a direct guide to more learned and generally useful books, without contradicting the latter with either its content or the alphabet. "
In his poetry, I. Altynsarin first of all promoted the importance of public education, appealed to young people to acquire knowledge. The need for education at the time of Altynsarin had to be proven. It was difficult not only to open a school, but also to recruit students. Altynsarin writes poems addressed to children, in which he encourages them to study. The most famous of them is "Let's study, children!" It talks about the benefits of science, knowledge in human life.
For centuries, the nomad believed that all his wealth was cattle. But much stronger is another, true wealth - knowledge. Altynsarin strives to convince young people of this. Only knowledge can make a person omnipotent, happy.
In the poem "Builds wondrous palaces ..." the poet also inspires readers with the idea of the need to fight for knowledge that would lead the Kazakhs to the ranks of civilized peoples.
Along with poems on social and educational topics, Altynsarin's poetry contains such works that reveal social inequality in the aul, denounce the stinginess and cruelty of the beys. The unfortunate people oppress their backs in a bow, Over the people - the all-powerful khans on the throne, "The poor are robbed brutally, dishonestly, And the rich are gifted everywhere."
Altynsarin the poet masterfully painted pictures of his native nature. Probably, there is not a single real poet who would not admire the peculiar laws of harmony, colors and sounds of nature. “Sympathy for nature is the first moment of the spirit that begins to develop. Each person begins with the fact that directly strikes his mind with form, color, sounds ... ", - wrote VG Belinsky.
Steppe nature is infinitely close to Altynsarin the poet. He is especially worried about the steppe in spring. In the poem "Spring", pictures of nature are inseparable from pictures of folk life. The panorama of the revived steppe with “earthly grace”, with “blue distant”, when in the “dewy warmth of vapors, the endless expanse is already covered with fresh fragrant grass”, is complemented by a heartfelt description of the joyful meeting of the eternally living with spring.
Kulans, saigas - in the open spaces of the spring land, Zapachut, pleased that again “Tall grasses. And on the water of clean lakes Swans and cranes will descend with cries. And at the hour when the sun blinds the human eye, The alluring mirage will tremble in the radiant distance. "
Spring brings joy to people. Altynsarin's keen eye notices small children frolicking “on the velvet of young grasses,” and a caravan that has equipped itself on the way, and women “with funny jokes,” and the parting of lovers at dawn.
At the same time, Altynsarin is not just a subtle observer of nature, who knows how to give colorful sketches. This is a poet-philosopher who ponders the meaning of life, its eternal renewal. Nature in the eyes of the poet is a great healer, she brings peace to life. Altynsarin enthusiastically perceives life, believes that it is reasonable and beautiful. This can be felt not only in the poem "Spring", but also in his other famous poem "River". On the one hand, this is a concrete image of the river, along the banks of which lush grasses grow and herds graze, and schools of fish frolic in the light streams, on the other, it is a symbol of the ever-flowing life:
"Hundreds of herds will not be able to muddy the rivers, And nothing is impossible to block her way!"
The artistic concreteness of the landscape, the heartfelt description of nature, its impact on the feelings of a person, with his thoughts, life and concerns, testify to the realistic manner in which the author depicts reality.
In addition to poems, I. Altynsarin wrote stories in which democratic, humanistic, educational ideas of the author are also expressed. In them, in the social aspect, pictures of everyday life and customs of Kazakh life in the 60s-70s of the 19th century are drawn.
The stories “The son of a bai and the son of a poor man”, “Kipchak Seytkul”, “Yurt and a wooden house”, “Ignorance”, “The harm of lies” and others pose important problems of public life: social inequality, the advantage of a sedentary lifestyle, the harm of ignorance, benefits known

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